One of the Māori fundamental values relates to whakapapa (genealogy). To determine the place of each individual in Māori society, we must understand how he is related to the other members of his whanau (family), hapu (sub tribe) or iwi (tribe). His situation in the family determines his behavior towards the other members of his community and draws the line for transmission of their knowledge. In the philosophical discourse of the Māori, called Whakapapa Korero, everything that exists is related to a family which itself relates to other families whose origins can be traced back to Ranginui and Papatūānuku.
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