Koyoto Protocol

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Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto, Japan 1997 saw the creation of the Kyoto protocol<ref>[1], mfe.govt.nz The Kyoto Protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. A document that was brought about to combat the effects of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere and the climate system<ref>The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.. http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1353.php. Retrieved 15 November 2005. "Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner". </ref>. It set about doing this with a list of aims: “Kyoto protocol is an international agreement to address global warming and delay climate change it aims to reduce the total greenhouse gas emissions of development countries to 5% below what they were in 1990.”<ref>[2], Kyotoprotocol.com, Kyoto protocol – towards climate stability, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref> This International agreement, set up by the United Nations<ref>[3], unfcc.int, Kyoto protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. The Kyoto Protocol came into effect on 16th February 2005. With currently 191 countries having signed and ratified to express their commitment to the protocol. The protocol works by: Kyoto protocol allows for flexibility mechanisms: - Emissions trading scheme - Joint implementation - Clean development mechanism

Global target range from -8% to +5% of 1990 emissions<ref>[4], Kyotoprotocol.com, Kyoto protocol – towards climate stability, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. With countries that dont reach their goals forced to use the flexibility mechanisms in order to off set their emissions. The Kyoto Protocol is a binding document that requires those who sign to follow through with the agreement<ref>[5], Kyotoprotocol.com, Kyoto protocol – towards climate stability, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. The Kyoto Protocol acknowledges that the main contributors to anthropogenic climate change are the developed nations who have subjected the world to 150 years of emissions from industry<ref>[6], unfcc.int, Kyoto protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>.. This has resulted in a heavier burden being placed on the developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.”<ref>[7], unfcc.int, Kyoto protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>.

New Zealand

-Target period 2008- 2012 -NZ’s target in to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to the level they were in 1990 or take responsibility for excess emissions<ref>[8], mfe.govt.nz The Kyoto Protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. By Signing the Protocol, New Zealand, now has to meet their obligations in the fight against climate change. New Zealand has to reduce its ‘greenhouse’ gas emissions to 1990 levels, between the years of 2008 and 2012<ref>[9], mfe.govt.nz The Kyoto Protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. Any emissions over the 1990 levels during the 2008-12 period are required to be responsibly taken care of, by the use of the flexibility methods outlined previously. (mfe.gotv.nz) To the future: 2020 target – 10-20% below 1990 levels<ref>[10], mfe.govt.nz The Kyoto Protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>. The goals set up are seen as 'responsibility targets' this means that mixture of domestic emissions reductions, the stage of carbon in forests and purchase of emission reduction units in other countries should be carried out in order to for fill the requirements that they undertook by signing the document<ref>[11], mfe.govt.nz The Kyoto Protocol, retrieved 20th September 2011.</ref>.

Australia

Given the goal of 108% of 1990 levels for emissions between 2008-2012<ref> http://www.climatechange.gov.au/government/reduce/national-targets.aspx. National Targets retrieved 21st september 2011. </ref>. Due to the flexibility of the Kyoto protocol, it allows countries to chose their method of dealing with excess emissions or in cutting down emissions. Australia’s government have chosen to tax the countries top 500 biggest polluters<ref> http://www.climatechange.gov.au/government/reduce/national-targets.aspx. National Targets retrieved 21st september 2011. </ref>. This carbon tax means that companies get allocated an amount of emissions that will meet the required emissions levels and then any more they will have to pay a tax.

References

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