Bioremediation focusses on developing problem-specific organisms rather than biomass for the adsorption of metals. These organisms are used for the degradation of pollutants. this includes the degradation of both metals and biological contaminants(Roundhill, 2001)Roundhill.
Bioremediation either targets mineralization of metals or alteration of redox states. Mineralization and control of redox states allows for the removal of harmful contaminants or modifying to a state which no longer a threat.(Das, et al, 2008)Das. Examples of this kind of remediation include the addition of biological enhancers and/or the addition of particular species of organisms. This can be seen at Mapua for the break down pesticides.
Bioremediation is an in situ, effective and cost-efficient method but is very dependent on environmental factors. Because the microbes require certain conditions for their survival, sites that are toxic to them or require treatment in places inaccessible to the microbes, such as at depth, are not suitable for this form of treatment. The field of Bioremediation is modern and a growing field, as such more methods for its application to varying situations are becoming readily more available.
Bioremediation methods can be extremely efficient, are 'green' technologies and often have very few negative impacts. Many of the methods target only the issue of concern and often the initial clean-up can continue treating the site long after application. This makes the technologies the ideal solution when they can be applied. The issue is the lack of Bioremediation technologies and the slow development of new ones.